Lets discuss the synthetic (and more potent) versions of the original pheromone molecules. Organic chemist Clive Jennings-White led the research, publishing his findings in a paper titled “Perfumery and the Sixth Sense.” Jennings-White discovered that two substances extracted from human skin have significant effects on the VNO: estratetraenol and androstadienone. As would be expected, the male VNO is highly sensitive to estratetraenol (the female pheromone), while the female VNO shows marked activity in the presence of androstadienone (the male pheromone).
As part of his research, Jennings-White tested selected popular perfume ingredients to see if they would affect the human VNO. Using a miniprobe designed to reach the opening of the VNO, Jennings-White was able to determine which perfume additives stimulated it and which left it cold. The scientist puffed J. civetone and muscone into the VNOs of volunteers; the organ did not respond to either substance. However, when the human ‘ pheromones estratetraenol and androstadienone were delivered, the VNO reacted in a display of physiological activity. The results of Jennings—White’s experiment do not necessarily mean the end 3 of the line for civetone and muscone, as these substances do , stimulate high levels of activity in human olfactory cells and are thus effective activators of the sense of smell. Jennings-White’s’ tests also revealed that pig pheromones, which are popular perfume additives, “show no significant activity in the human VNO.” One of the challenges of creating a pheromone-based per pheromone-to-fragrance ratios, citing trade-secret reasons.
Jennings-White also analyzed the ingredients of a number of other popular perfumes and colognes now on the market. Lyd’ a perfume for women, features a potent concentration of pig androstenol. Lydia’s androstenol is present in concentrations five hundred times that of the androstadienone pheromone in Realm perfume.
The only trail of evidence I can see regarding pheromone attraction, is by refusing the context of the piece, by mixing choice quotes, and ignoring their qualifiers – such as mostly, rarely, and from a woman’s perspective. That allows you to conflate objective reality with a woman’s point of view, and the author’s personal opinion. I have seen nothing that seriously addresses this. When I prompted you for the logic that was broken, you just referred me back to a series of quotes. If you do not present the logic that connects them, and explains why it is broken, then you have not done anything of value. You have to connect the dots, not just claim that they are there and that everybody should Rorschach their way to your interpretation.
The leading Jennings-White to surmise that “it is not possible to compensate for a substance being inherently inactive in the human VNO by increasing the concentration.” Jovan’s Musk 2 also features pig androstenol as a key ingredient.
“Only products which contain human pheromones are active in the human VNO, and there is excellent correlation between the nature of the components and the activity of the finished products,” Jennings-White writes. He concludes, “We are approaching a radical shift in the concept of perfumery. Hence forth, the design of a perfume should take into account stimulation of the long-neglected sixth sense, the vomeronasal system.”
A Spoonful of . . . Pheromones?
Pharmaceuticals are big business, and the most successful f companies earn billions of dollars every year. Success relies on it the creation and marketing of drugs that capture broad-based consumer and physician attention—and loyalty. “Wonder drugs” are not easy to come by; only about one in thirty-five thousand formulas enjoys success in the marketplace.
The bane of pharmaceutical companies is the expired drug ;_ patent. An expired patent on a drug that was originally the property of one company means that any company can now make a generic version of it. Knowing that huge profits can be realized If with the introduction of a fantastic new medicine and knowing that patents have time limits, pharmaceutical companies are always looking for new and innovative ways to treat the many ailments that can afflict the human body. The winners in the race to bring new drugs to people are those companies that go beyond the conventional and venture into unexplored territory.
Medical technology employs a variety of drug delivery methods, with pills, suppositories, and injections being the most common. Now nasal sprays and skin patches are also being used t deliver medicines. But what if a company were to discover a new method of drug delivery? What if a company could harness if the powers of pheromones in drug technology? That company would be destined for success if it could show that the worked with more efficacy than anything else available. through the concept sounds futuristic, it is being explored no” at Pherin Pharmaceuticals, a privately held biotechnology company based in Menlo Park, California.
Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., was founded by pheromone searcher David Berliner in 1991. The company’s main thrust the research and development of pheromone-based pharmeceuticals, and it is the first to study how the relationship between the VNO and the hypothalamus could be used to treat illness “To that end, Pherin has spent millions of dollars investigating very complex subjects of chemosensory neurobiology, anatomy, and pheromone technology. Pending approvals from doctors.
No, you think, I could resist such appeals to my emotions. Maybe. But remember that pheromones don’t appeal to your logical side. Pheromones zip straight to the core of your reptilian brain, skirting your developed “thinking” cortex and moving to the region that controls your most basic inclinations and physiological workings. So, it’s not entirely absurd to posit that pheromones could someday be used as sales tools in the never-ending competition to attract customers. With the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Pherin hopes to introduce in the next few years a unique class of drugs that are administered through the nose and, more specifically, through the vomeronasal organ.
This development could have additional benefits. When you take a pill, your body has to work to process the pill and separate its active ingredients from its inactive ones. Your internal organs become involved and the drug passes into your bloodstream, which means side effects can occur. Taking medicine can be an unpleasant experience. One goal of pharmaceutical companies is to create drugs that not only work well but also produce the fewest side effects. Drug companies know physicians will prescribe medicines that are easy on their patients.
Pheromones increase sexual excitement. These findings are significant because they suggest a direct connection between the human VNO and the brain. Says pheromone researcher Louis Monti-Bloch, “We are meeting the requirements that have been used in VNO studies in other mammals: behavioral and endocrine changes.” Because Pherin’s Vomeropherins are not ingested, they do not have any systemic involvement.
Pheromones In the Brain
In other words, organs such as the stomach, intestines, and liver do not have to process these compounds before they are delivered to the brain to do their work. This will be the true virtue of Vomeropherins: They only have to be sniffed in extremely small doses to exert their effects on the hypothalamus. Traditional therapies rely on circulating the drug through the bloodstream in order to reach the drug’s target zone in the body. Vomeropherin therapy would directly affect the brain by stimulating key afferent nerves.
While most medicines in pill form are prescribed in milligram quantities, a Vomeropherin works with a fraction of that amount a picogram, which is a millionth of a millionth of a gram. Explains , David Berliner, “If you compare a picogram to a gram, it’s like the length of a pencil eraser compared to the length from here if to the moon.” Also significant is the speed at which vomeropherins travel to the brain: One ten-thousandth of a second is all it takes for the molecule to activate the hypothalamus.
To test their hypothesis that Vomeropherins affect brain activity, Pherin scientists conducted a series of double blind placebo controlled experiments involving a number of their synthesized substances, some more potent than others and each Molecular Biology, reveal that Vomeropherins indeed cause pothalamic activity, and certain Vomeropherins were found to alter hormone levels in the blood.
Hormonal changes occurred even when only a few molecules of Vomeropherin were puff into the nasal cavity. The Vomeropherins, Pherin is pleased to port, “deliver instant neural messages to the brain.” Pherin is working with the FDA to develop a series of “VNO hypothalamus” drugs. The company thinks it may be able to create more to treat a wide range of health concerns that have a hormonal component. Currently under development are vomeropherins for prostate cancer, breast cancer, panic disorders, and premenstrual syndrome.
The hypothalamus is also the command center of the emotions. It controls mood, anxiety levels, states of fear or calm-, it also tells us if We’re hungry or full, drowsy or alert, sexually aroused or not. Pherin hopes to someday introduce vomeropherins to treat acute panic attacks, anxiety, and phobias, as well as compounds that help people lose weight. By using vomeropherins to communicate with the hypothalamus, Pherin could ostensibly goleven further—speed up or slow down a person’s metabolism, ignite a ﬂagging sex drive, improve sleep patterns, cure insomnia. The possibilities are mind-boggling. vomeropherins and Hormones: Exciting New Inroads
Pheromone research has led to a number of remarkable and significant scientific findings. For example, scientists have discovered that vomeropherins not only affect a person’s mood but also drive changes in the endocrine system, which is governed by the hypothalamus. Pherin researchers have also found that vomeropherins can cause an increase in alpha waves in the cortical region of the brain. Alpha waves are those related to feelings of relaxation. Other vomeropherins do just the opposite: They increase the incidence of beta waves, which reflect a state of mental alertness. Yet other vomeropherins can decrease the rate of respiration, which also leads to a state of relaxation. Re-search has also shown that muscle activity is affected by certain vomeropherins: Some cause muscles to tense while others relax muscle fibers.“As a biochemist working on control delivery systems for drugs, I think it’s extraordinary,” says Dr. Sergio Nacht, a biochemist and physiologist at Advanced Polymer Systems, a San Francisco—based biotechnology company currently working on more pheromone products.